Grades K - 2

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kindergarten through second grade in school

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 Lower Grammar Stage

Each of the core disciplines has its role to play in the building up of the whole and each has its own more specific set of objectives for the different stages at which it is being taught. Quite simply, at each stage there are things we want children to know, things they ought to be able to do, and habits, dispositions or aptitudes they ought to have acquired or be acquiring. Considering these in detail and in light of the general objectives of each subject, and considering each subject in light of the overall end, teachers in specific subjects and at specific stages can see how each stage builds upon the previous stage, how their work contributes to the "finished product" and how they can tailor specific classes and methods to serve these ideals more effectively.

​Kindergarten: The Cradle of Civilization Year
First Grade: The Greek Year
Second Grade: The Roman Year



  • Acquire habits of attending, noticing, sitting still and concentrating
  • Learn discipline from following simple projects through to completion
  • Begin to develop eye and appreciation​ for beauty
  • Begin to question art works for their meaning


  • ​​​​​​​Learn how to look at and begin to interpret paintings
  • Study and give rudimentary explanation of Christian art and iconography
  • Study and give rudimentary explanation of art related to Egypt, Greece, and Rome
  • Begin to know properties, characteristics, and qualities of beauty
  • Begin to recognize how art expressed cultural ideals​


  • Learn how to look at, examine and see a painting and other works of art
  • Learn to tell the story of a painting​​
  • Begin to render as well as draw imaginatively
  • Learn basics of drawing, painting and sculpting
  • Learn to copy according to established rules​​


  • Dev​elop memory
  • Develop ability to listen and recall
  • Develop an interest in history
  • See relevance of past to present
  • Appreciate Greek philosophical ideals
  • Begin to see an integrated conception of the world on which the beliefs of western civilization are based


  • Understand history and culture as human desire for goodness, truth and, ultimately, God
  • Develop basic knowledge of history of Israel through the Bible, and in context of ancient near east
  • Develop basic knowledge of the geography of the ancient near east, including Mesopotamia, Canaan, and Egypt
  • Develop more detailed understanding of Greek civilization: people, places, geography, religion, government, economics, art, architecture, music, technology and culture
  • Understand how Greek civilization contributed to Christianity
  • Develop better understanding of Roman civilization: people, places, geography, religion, government, economics, art, architecture, music, technology and culture
  • Understand how Rome became the home of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Begin to see how Christianity transformed the Roman Empire
  • Begin to see Greek and Roman contributions to culture
  • Learn to identify the basic geography of Greece, Rome and their neighbors
  • Memorization of key historical facts
  • Beginning map reading and recognition
  • Use a globe
  • Understand a timeline
  • Ability to narrate historical stories
  • Begin to see connections between historical events and themes
  • Beginning ability to formulate and discuss philosophical questions
  • Artistically render historical scenes from imagination​

 Language: Literature, Grammar, Composition and Drama

  • ​Develop capacity for listening
  • Develop memory
  • Appreciate playfulness in language
  • Develop habits of concentration, stillness and memory
  • Learn to ask questions about the moral or meaning of stories and symbols
  • Learn to speak directly and confidently


  • Alphabet
  • Phonics and reading
  • Spelling
  • Beginning writing
  • Beginning grammar
  • Beginning poetic understanding
  • Latin roots (chants), early vocabulary, phrases and prayers​​​​
  • ​Learn to read proficiently
  • Develop reading comprehension
  • Employ correct grammar in writing and speech
  • Learn good penmanship, using proper technique, and beginning cursive
  • Recognize and write complete sentences
  • Memorize and recite the definition of the parts of speech
  • Understand and identify parts of speech, and the four different types of sentences
  • Say and write the days of the week, the seasons, the months of the year, students' home address, titles of respect, abbreviations and dates
  • Understand and use beginning punctuation, contractions, capital letters, synonyms and antonyms
  • Be able to order simple ideas, form paragraphs and copy the final work
  • Narration: re-tell stories in detail, with vocal clarity, poise, and eye contact; eventually, re-tell the narrative thread of a story
  • Act out stories with other students as characters
  • Develop ability to identify the main idea
  • Answer comprehension questions about a reading passage in complete sentences
  • Copy work: copy sentences from works of history, the Bible or literature
  • Dictation: listen to an oral recitation and write down a sentence(s) from works of history, the Bible or literature
  • Recitation: recite poems or psalms from memory with vocal clarity, poise and eye contact
  • Conversation: "Socratic" discussions should teach students to begin questioning and discussion stories, pictures, fables or proverbs according to four rules:
    • Read the text carefully
    • Listen to what others say and don't interrupt
    • Speak clearly
    • Give others your respect
  • Perform a play and memorize lines​


  • Recognize the ubiquity of number and shape in the world around us
  • Develop a sense of wonder at recognizing how the world can be expressed mathematically
  • Develop a love for constructing math, numerically and geometrically


  • Acquire basic numeracy
  • Understand equivalent forms of the same number using diagrams, objects, and numbers
  • Recognize basic geometrical shapes and parts of shapes
  • Solve word problems​​​
  • Count, read, write and compare numbers up to 1,000, both symbolically and through physical construction
  • Acquire facility with basics of place value
  • Perform basic addition and subtraction functions of one-, two-, and three-digit numbers
  • Understand basic fraction concepts
  • Count by 2s, 3s, 4s, 5s and 10s
  • Identify and construct circles, squares, rectangles, triangles, ovals, cubes, tetrahedral pyramids, cylinders, cones, spheres and rectangular prisms
  • Recognize and describe the appearance of basic patterns in nature
  • Recognize equivalency in number, shape, pattern and other physical characteristics
  • Construct basic sets and groupings of objects in the environment and nature, and be able to articulate the criteria for inclusion and exclusion
  • Recognize and solve simple replacement codes
  • Solve simple geometric puzzles
  • Recognize the relationship of tone to the size, length, shape and material of the object being sounded (e.g., bells of different size being run, or the length of thickness of a string being plucked)
  • Take linear measurement and be able to articulate changes in measurement over time; introduce basic means of recording measurement
  • Tell and record time and changes in time in seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months and years
  • Recognize and calculate basic currency; introduce coin-tossing scenarios as an introduction to probability​


  • Begin to develop a love and appreciation of beautiful music and its power
  • Begin to understand the relationship between music, prayer and liturgy
  • Acquire the habit and develop students' powers of patient, attentive listening​


  • Know elements of music: melody, harmony, rhythm, pitch and tone
  • Begin to think about what music means and why it is or is not beautiful
  • Know instruments of the orchestra by sound and sight
  • Be introduced to tradition of sacred music
  • Begin to understand the symbols in music
  • Begin to read music
  • Begin to acquire some musical skill in singing and playing elementary instruments
  • Begin to be able to concentrate on, listen to and discuss a piece of music​

 Nature Studies

  • Develop a capacity to attend to and notice nature
  • Develop won​der and appreciation for the natural world


  • Understand the difference between basic animal groups
  • State and "catalogue" animals of certain species by their differences
  • Recite key characteristics of the way of life for certain select animals or animal groups
  • Understand basic divisions within the plant kingdom, and the distinguishing characteristics of each
  • Learn to identify flora, fauna and wildlife indigenous to the region
  • Begin to develop an elementary understanding of the human body
  • Begin to understand the "body-soul unity" of the human person, and the specific characteristics and capacities distinguishing humans from other animals
  • Understand basic regional geography and seasons​
  • Be able to narrate the above knowledge
  • Develop a skill of observing, rendering and cataloguing this knowledge in a "nature notebook​

 Physical Education

  • ​​Practice teamwork and good sportsmanship

  • ​Understand students' bodies and physical abilities as a gift
  • Begin to learn the rules of major sports and races​
  • Begin to acquire facility in throwing, catching, hitting and kicking
  • Begin to learn basic dance steps
  • Begin to deliberately coordinate body to physical activity​


​Aptitudes ​​
  • Cultivate longing for God
  • Develop habits of stillness and adoration
  • Begin to develop a habit of prayer, a love for the mysteries of the faith and a desire for God's beauty and truth
  • Develop a habit of noticing the presence of God


  • ​​​Begin to recognize how Christianity becomes incarnate in culture through art, music, architecture, literature and the liturgical calendar
  • Appreciate the historical setting of the Bible
  • Learn the traditions of the church and the mysteries of the faith through beauty, beautiful liturgy and adoration
  • Become acquainted with the tradition of sacred music as a form of prayer
  • Acquire basic catechetical instruction in the meaning of the Incarnation, the Creeds of the Church, familiarity with the Old and New Testaments and the difference between them, the meaning of the Mass, the liturgical calendar, basic prayers and practices of the church, etc


  • Memorize and recite Scripture, Bible facts, catechism, prayers and hymns
  • Learn to pray liturgically, intercessory and contemplatively
  • Learn to regard and participate in sacred music as a form of prayer​